Briefly explains the fundamental principles connected to the collection of evidence during crime scene investigations.
Explains the various latent print states, such as faintly visible, visible (by addition, by removal and by impression), latent, transferred or electronic capture prints. Differently papillary evidences, such as other skin impressions, gloved handprints, animal tracks or fabric textures are also illustrated.
Briefly explains the most common latent print development techniques; some specific development cases, such as on live or dead human skin, on nails, the relationships with DNA profiling techniques and the age estimation issue are also discussed.
Explains the issue of latent print reversed (i.e., tonally and laterally reversed). Reversal procedures with respect to latent print states are also illustrated. It also discusses reversal procedures in relation to lifting techniques (i.e., by adhesives).
Explains the analysis of latent prints, the first step of the so-called Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation and Verification (ACE-V) methodology. It describes approaches and procedures. Some problems are also discussed.
Explains the comparison of latent prints, the second step of the so-called ACE-V methodology. It describes types (comparison against elimination prints, known prints of suspects and known prints in the database) and procedures. Some problems are also discussed.
Explains AFIS/APIS (latent prints) for the purpose of trace recognition and describes the main processes that rely on the use of the system. Some problems are also discussed. Some specific paragraphs are devoted to missed identification cases (false negatives).
Explains the evaluation and verification of latent prints, the third and the fourth steps of the so-called ACE-V methodology. It describes exclusion, individualization or inconclusive conclusions. Court exhibits are illustrated in case of individualization. The different approaches to declaring individualization are also discussed. Guarding against error cases is discussed in depth. Finally, remarks and possible safeguard recommendations are provided.